区块链如何在大流行中发挥作用?

2020年4月13日 Legaltech新闻 出版物
作者: 乔安妮·莫里纳罗(Joanne Molinaro)
While at-home investors and big-dollar funds are keeping their eyes on Bitcoin during the unprecedented economic effects the global pandemic continues to cause across the globe, crypto-experts are contemplating the obvious: Could 块chain—比特币的基础技术—是下一场大流行的答案吗?

什么是区块链技术?

A 块chain is an incorruptible digital ledger of transactions that can be programmed to record almost anything of value. Digital data is recorded in “blocks,”每个都分配有唯一的“hash.”散列用作识别“seal” that ensures the data on the 块 have not been corrupted. Each 块 also contains on it the hash of the  块,这就是形成一个“chain.” If 一 attempts to change the data residing on a given 块, a new hash will be generated for that 块 and the chain will be broken, since the hash of the 块 coming  the tampered 块 will no longer reflect the correct 哈希。 This is 一 of the features that make a 块chain virtually “unhackable.”
 
A key attribute of a 块chain is that the data is 共享 or “distributed.”想象一个包含数字数据(数字分类帐)的共享电子表格(例如Google文档),该电子数据可以重复数千次并分发到许多不同的计算机(或“nodes”) on a vast network. A copy of that spreadsheet is updated 每一个 time a single item is changed. When a change is made to the document, a notification is sent to all the 节点 and a new version of the spreadsheet is redistributed to those computers—每个都存储自己的同一电子表格副本,包括  每一个  该电子表格创建后的版本。因为网络上的每个节点都存储了整个电子表格的每个历史版本的副本,所以没有  “central”数据的存储库或管理员。相反,分布式分类帐是“decentralized.”
 
Here is how 块chain is different from a “shared” spreadsheet: If someone tries to go back into the historical record and delete or change something, each of the 节点 will refer back to its own repository of historical data, note the discrepancy that the proposed change would create, and  拒绝  数据被写入到“spreadsheet.” Thus, the more “nodes” or computers there are to monitor the integrity of the data being written onto the 块chain, the more secure that 块chain is.
 
让’s apply the above analogy to a pandemic. Think of a Pandemic [P-1] 块chain as a very large spreadsheet that contains each instance when a new case of P-1 is contracted. Each new transaction of P-1 contains a cryptograph (to ensure some privacy) of the person who contracted P-1, when it was contracted, where they reside, and information regarding with whom they’ve been in contact.
The transaction also includes the entity that wrote to the 块chain, as well, to ensure some mechanism for verifying the data. This is key—the utility of 块chain (like any other digital ledger) is only as good as the data written onto it—and given the nature of the data that would reside on the P-1 块chain, 一 important way of ensuring integrity would be to “validate”用户在上面写。
 
让’s假设数据经过验证并最终写入P-1区块链。一旦那个“block” of data is added to the chain, all the 节点 to that 块chain (i.e., the computers that keep a record of the sprawling spreadsheet) instantly receive an updated record of an unbroken chain of all P-1 transactions. No 一 can subsequently change the data written onto that 块 without breaking the chain, and anyone with access to the 块chain will be able to trace where and how quickly P-1 travels.

根据COVID-19的实际用例

Acoer, a startup located in Atlanta, Georgia, is a software development firm specializing in open source and 块chain solutions. Recently, Acoer has pivoted its HashLog data visualization engine—最初旨在用于有关临床试验,痴呆和死亡率数据的数据分析—提供有关COVID-19传播的见解。
 
正如冠状病毒大流行所揭示的那样,接触者追踪只是可用于应对公共卫生危机的数据的一个方面。例如,价格欺诈不仅使人们无法找到洗手液和卫生纸之类的东西,而且在某些医院,医疗专业人员被迫在没有适当防护设备的情况下照料患者。
 
为了抵消COVID-19的这种有害影响,荷兰政府已经部署了区块链技术,以提高医疗设备供应链的透明度。具体来说,区块链将提供一个有助于“使供需匹配,” thus “防止在冠状病毒大流行中掠夺性价值的提取,例如价格欺诈。”鉴于几乎所有行业的供应链都异常中断,因此区块链不仅可以直接用于抵制COVID-19,而且还可以用于间接经济影响。

区块链部署的潜在问题

任何区块链的安全性和写入区块的数据的可靠性在很大程度上是不变性和透明性的功能。不幸的是,这两个因素直奔隐私法。一旦写入区块链,数据便永远存在于区块链上。但是,像GDPR这样的法规要求保留个人数据的时间不得超过其处理目的所必需的时间。区块链如何与患者相处’有权删除其数据?
 
数据的不变性是分散的功能。因此,提供一个“delete button”在区块链数据上,区块链将需要减少分散性。这些区块链被称为“permissioned” 块chains or “consortiums,”如果节点不是匿名的,则访问区块链必须征得其他参与者的同意,并且数据可能更容易更改。但是,随着权力下放的减少,其所有好处,即安全性也将减少。负责维护数据完整性和安全性的节点越少,越容易受到黑客攻击。
 
尽管如此,正如Acoer这样的初创公司所证明的,在危机时期,财团似乎是最好的答案。俗话说,乞cannot不能成为选择者。

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